Kudus Research And Advocacy Center-Kurac who have more than 15 research works of various sector's especially in the social science of international stand's and about 5 confirmed articles publishable with International Institution of Technology Science Education (IITSE) would be glad to share our findings on the above subject in Africa as the about 75 page study was started in 2015 and finished in 2018, And also the full study was shared on our official Facebook page's.
We are seeking the needed authorities like the National Communication Authorities ,the telecommunications company's, the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA) and other Africa countries,Ghana police service and all the major stakeholders to look into it to get it resolved as we made this abstract and findings and conclusion available.
But important for us as an advocacy center is we want to known what they are doing in this coronavirus periods where Internet data usage's are at it's peak's for we have not heard any subsidies nor free Internet data been given to subscribers in the name of fighting coronavirus of any Telecommunications network in Ghana.
Cybercrime, or computer oriented crime, is crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrimes can be defined as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (networks including but not limited to Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (Bluetooth/SMS/MMS)"Telecommunications network, electronic system of links and switches, and the controls that govern their operation, that allows for data transfer and exchange among multiple users.
The study was necessitated due to growing concerns of cybercrime in the country through the telecommunications network with our objectives been to; Find the cost of Mobile telecommunications operations in Ghana and to that of subscribers,To find out weather Mobile telecommunications networks involved in Cybercrime in operating countries in Africa in terms of revenue or tax evasion,To find out the Mobile network capacity and capabilities in Ghana in terms of subscribers based and network services and To find out which Mobile Telecommunications network(s) provider are into/prone to Cybercrime
The study was designed to find out the true happening in the telecommunications network by way of cost of operations, promotions and mobile money cybercrime activities in relation to their coverage capacity and capabilities. With secondary data (NCA 2017 September figures) and primary (through purposive and judgmental ) data were used,mobile numbers subjected to fraudulent test's.Analysis was done with the aid of SPSS and Microsoft excel through which pictorial representation by way of pie charts and pictures depicting the real happening.
CONCLUSIONS AND FINDINGS
1. With the objectives of finding the cost of Mobile telecommunications operations in Ghana and to that of subscribers we came to conclusions that;
In setting the consumer price for Internet data, Network Operators consider several factors such as spectrum fee, network investment requirement, power cost, marketing, administrative overheads among others. The most important cost driver is the spectrum fee. This is because spectrum is the fundamental requirement for the operation of mobile networks. As a result, the price tag placed on spectrum band affects how much consumers eventually pay for data.In 2015 spectrum for 4G service the reserve price was set at $67.5 million per lot ($0.13 per MHz per pop),which was high as compared to similar spectrum prices in neighbouring African countries.
And also According to 2017 Internet Affordability report, Ghanaians spend an average of 3.89% of income on 1GB of data per month. This clearly shows Internet is still not affordable to all income groups.Comparatively however, the consumer price of Internet in Ghana is moderate relative to other African countries.Not withstanding, consumer price for data is still not affordable for all income groups based on Alliance for Affordable Internet’s target of 1GB of data for 2% of average income.Hence with the above we came to conclusion that the cost of Mobile telecommunications operations in Ghana and to that of subscribers are expensive.
2. With the objective of finding out weather Mobile telecommunications networks involved in Cyber crime in operating countries in Africa in terms of revenue or tax evasion.There was compelling evidence to support the assertion that across the continent, the modus operandi of the telecom operators is a combination of under-declaration, tax evasion and non-compliance with the law.
In Uganda, President Museveni declared in his 2017/2018 budget speech that the telcos had cost the country over US$400m in lost tax revenue in the previous year. In Nigeria, on December 14 2016, an ad hoc committee of the National Assembly set up to investigate allegations of malpractices and fraud within the telecom industry declared that Nigerian law guiding contracts between telecos and the Nigerian music and creative industries and content makers had been grossly violated (allegedly to the tune of nearly US$500m).In Zambia, in August 2017, the Zambian Revenue Authority declared that it had finally been paid the equivalent of US$10m by MTN in unpaid taxes for non-compliance with VAT returns.In Liberia, in 2016, the Liberian Supreme Court ruled that the MTN affiliate, Lonestar Communication Corporation had wrongly claimed deductions on unpaid expatriates’ salaries taxes from the government and fined it US$2.4m.In Cameroon, in 2016, MTN and Orange were fined over US$160m for not paying taxes on their money transfer system known as Mobile Money As a result of a 2-year investigation in 2015 called “Finance Uncovered”, MTN subsidiaries in Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda were alleged to have made payments over many years of hundreds of millions of dollars in “management fees” to a sister company in Mauritius that was essentially no more than a post office box.In Liberia, in 2016, the Liberian Supreme Court ruled that the MTN affiliate, Lonestar Communication Corporation had wrongly claimed deductions on unpaid expatriates’ salaries taxes from the government and fined it US$2.4m.In Cameroon, in 2016, MTN and Orange were fined over US$160m for not paying taxes on their money transfer system known as Mobile Money. Those payments decreased the revenue of the companies and effectively reduced the income tax paid to the countries in which they operate.Hence with the above we came to conclusion that the Mobile telecommunications networks involved in Cyber crime in operating countries in Africa in terms of revenue or tax evasion.
3. With the objective of finding out the Mobile network capacity and capabilities in Ghana in terms of subscribers based and network services we came to conclusion that MTN Ghana have the widest nation wide coverage on all the capitals and major cities and villages fellow by Vodafone and AirtelTigo glo Ghana and expresso respectively but also in terms of subscriber base according the NCA figures we came to conclusion that MTN Ghana have the biggest share holder in terms of market value of about 12million compromising 57% of the Ghanaian market, fellow in the second place were AirtelTigo of about 5million of about 25% in the third place was Vodafone Ghana of subscriber base of about 3million comprising about 17% of the market share in the fourth place was that of global Ghana 1.28% of the market share and final at fifth place was expresso of market value of about 0.04% of the total subscriber base of about 22million of Ghana as of September 2017 NCA figures.but in terms of Internet capacity and capabilities MTN with 4G fellow by Vodafone Ghana AirtelTigo ,global Ghana
4. With the objective of finding out which Mobile Telecommunications network(s) provider are into/prone to Cyber crime we came to conclusion that For Mobile telecommunications network to subscribers we came to conclusion that MTN Ghana is west or most engaged in fraudulent activities through undue credit deduction and lottery or winning promotions,Also we came to conclusion that subscribers to telecoms it was AirtelTigo expresso and glo Ghana through social media mostly Facebook diverting of foreign call or sim box fraud and finally with subscribers to subscribers fraudulent activities we came to conclusion that the mobile money platform was the most vulnerable and used platform as MTN mobile money and Vodafone cash were the platform it which their subscribers were used mostly unsuspecting subscribers.But Vodafone Ghana lottery promotion's were the most reliable among the telecommunications network .
5. Another finding's that was made was that subscribers was vulnerable to an extent that anybody could walk to anybody in the Telecommunications networks to request for anybody's information,put his/her records on message voice calls under surveillance without the subscriber or the necessary authorities concerns mostly for political and other activities. Tigo/Artel,Vodafone and MTN subscribers were more prone or vulnerable to this kind of activities. A pure bridge of privacy of the subscribers
6. But generally we came to conclusion that Mobile Telecommunications networks in Ghana engaged in undue credit and Internet bundle detection as unsuspecting customers or subscribers don't released it because lack of knowledge on that.
Generally with our hypothesis we rejected the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis that indeed mobile telecommunications network and subscribers involved in cyber crime through the telecommunications network at about 95% confidence level
Note:Its a fully study of about 75 pages can be made available with a fee.
Yussif Abdul Kudus
Founder & Executive director Kurac